Sleep spindles

Sleep spindles represent an oscillating electrical potential in the brain. They have a characteristic frequency of 11–16 Hz (usually 12–14 Hz in healthy adults) and last from one to several seconds in duration[1]. On scalp electroencephalography (EEG), spindles are seen as sinusoidal waves that often have a fusiform or “crescendo-decrescendo” morphology[2].

1. a Silber MH, Ancoli-Israel S, Bonnet MH, Chokroverty S, Grigg-Damberger MM, Hirshkowitz M, Kapen S, Keenan SA, Kryger MH, Penzel T, Pressman MR, Iber C. The visual scoring of sleep in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007 Mar 15;3(2):121-31.
[PMID: 17557422]
2. a De Gennaro L, Ferrara M. Sleep spindles: an overview. Sleep Med Rev. 2003 Oct;7(5):423-40. doi: 10.1053/smrv.2002.0252.
[PMID: 14573378] [DOI: 10.1053/smrv.2002.0252]
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