Pharmacopoeia 3816 0
In 1993, felbamate, a 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate, became the first AED since 1978 to be approved by the FDA with the brand name Felbatol. Unlike its dicarbamate analog meprobamate, it has minimal anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic effects in therapeutic doses.
Pharmacopoeia 3883 0
Ethosuximide (α-ethyl-α-methyl-succinimide) is the main survivor of the succinimides. It was first introduced in clinical practice in the early 1950s for the treatment of ‘petit mal’.
Pharmacopoeia 3347 0
Eslicarbazepine acetate [(S)-(--)-10-acetoxy-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide] is a prodrug of eslicarbazepine (S-9-(-)-10-acetoxy-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenz/b,f/azepine-5-carboxamide) and shares with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11-position. Eslicarbazepine acetate is the latest AED to be licensed in Europe (April 2009) with the brand names Exalief and Zebinix (it will trade in USA as Stedesa).
Pharmacopoeia 3336 0
Clonazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine.
Pharmacopoeia 25684 0
Clobazam was the first 1,5-benzodiazepine and was designed to have a chemical structure with a different pharmacological profile from that of the 1,4-benzodiazepines.
Pharmacopoeia 7905 0
Carbamazepine is an iminodibenzyl derivative desig nated chemically as 5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine- 5-carboxamide. It is structurally related to the tricyclic antidepressants. It was first introduced into clinical practice in 1962, mainly for the treat ment of trigeminal neuralgia prior to becoming the main AED for focal epilepsies.
Pharmacopoeia 3301 0
Benzodiazepines are a group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring. The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide, was introduced in clinical practice as anxiolytic and hypnotic in 1960 under the brand name Librium. Diazepam (Valium) followed in 1963. There are today over 30 benzodiazenines (15 are marketed in the USA) used for anxiety, panic, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures.
Pharmacopoeia 3520 0
Acetazolamide, an heterocyclic sulfonamide, is a carbonic anhydrase-inhibiting drug used predominantly for the treatment of glaucoma.
Pharmacopoeia 3789 0
Perampanel, a first-in-class, noncompetitive, α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist recently approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in patients 12 years of age and older when other antiepileptic medications have failed.
Inflammatory disorders 10243 0
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord.