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Classification of seizures

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The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission on Classification and Terminology has revised concepts, terminology, and approaches for classifying seizures and forms of epilepsy. Generalized and focal are redefined for seizures as occurring in and rapidly engaging bilaterally distributed networks (generalized) and within networks limited to one hemisphere and either discretely localized or more widely distributed (focal). Classification of generalized seizures is simplified. No natural classification for focal seizures exists; focal seizures should be described according to their manifestations (e.g., dyscognitive, focal motor). The concepts of generalized and focal do not apply to electroclinical syndromes. Genetic, structural–metabolic, and unknown represent modified concepts to replace idiopathic, symptomatic, and cryptogenic. Not all epilepsies are recognized as electroclinical syndromes. Organization of forms of epilepsy is first by specificity: electroclinical syndromes, nonsyndromic epilepsies with structural–metabolic causes, and epilepsies of unknown cause. Further organization within these divisions can be accomplished in a flexible manner depending on purpose. Natural classes (e.g., specific underlying cause, age at onset, associated seizure type), or pragmatic groupings (e.g., epileptic encephalopathies, self-limited electroclinical syndromes) may serve as the basis for organizing knowledge about recognized forms of epilepsy and facilitate identification of new forms

 The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission on Classification and Terminology has revised concepts, terminology, and approaches for classifying seizures and forms of epilepsy. Generalized and focal are redefined for seizures as occurring in and rapidly engaging bilaterally distributed networks (generalized) and within networks limited to one hemisphere and either discretely localized or more widely distributed (focal). Classification of generalized seizures is simplified. No natural classification for focal seizures exists; focal seizures should be described according to their manifestations (e.g., dyscognitive, focal motor). The concepts of generalized and focal do not apply to electroclinical syndromes. Genetic, structural–metabolic, and unknown represent modified concepts to replace idiopathic, symptomatic, and cryptogenic. Not all epilepsies are recognized as electroclinical syndromes. Organization of forms of epilepsy is first by specificity: electroclinical syndromes, nonsyndromic epilepsies with structural–metabolic causes, and epilepsies of unknown cause. Further organization within these divisions can be accomplished in a flexible manner depending on purpose. Natural classes (e.g., specific underlying cause, age at onset, associated seizure type), or pragmatic groupings (e.g., epileptic encephalopathies, self-limited electroclinical syndromes) may serve as the basis for organizing knowledge about recognized forms of epilepsy and facilitate identification of new forms

CLASSIFICATION OF SEIZURES
GENERALIZED SEIZURES
TONIC–CLONIC (IN ANY COMBINATION)
ABSENCE
TYPICAL
ATYPICAL
ABSENCE WITH SPECIAL FEATURE
MYOCLONIC ABSENCE
EYELID MYOCLONIA
MYOCLONIC
MYOCLONIC
MYOCLONIC ATONIC
MYOCLONIC TONIC
CLONIC
TONIC
ATONIC
FOCAL SEIZURES
UNKNOWN
EPILEPTIC SPASMS

Seizure that cannot be clearly diagnosed into one of the preceding categories should be considered unclassified until further information allows their accurate diagnosis. This is not considered a classification category, however

ELECTROCLINICAL SYNDROMES AND OTHER EPILEPSIES
ELECTROCLINICAL SYNDROMES ARRANGED BY AGE AT ONSET  
NEONATAL PERIOD
BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL EPILEPSY (BFNE)
EARLY MYOCLONIC ENCEPHALOPATHY (EME)
OHTAHARA SYNDROME
INFANCY
EPILEPSY OF INFANCY WITH MIGRATING FOCAL SEIZURES
WEST SYNDROME
MYOCLONIC EPILEPSY IN INFANCY (MEI)
BENIGN INFANTILE EPILEPSY
BENIGN FAMILIAL INFANTILE EPILEPSY
DRAVET SYNDROME
MYOCLONIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IN NONPROGRESSIVE DISORDERS
CHILDHOOD
FEBRILE SEIZURES PLUS (FS+) (CAN START IN INFANCY)
PANAYIOTOPOULOS SYNDROME
EPILEPSY WITH MYOCLONIC ATONIC (PREVIOUSLY ASTATIC) SEIZURES
BENIGN EPILEPSY WITH CENTROTEMPORAL SPIKES (BECTS)
AUTOSOMAL-DOMINANT NOCTURNAL FRONTAL LOBE EPILEPSY (ADNFLE)
LATE ONSET CHILDHOOD OCCIPITAL EPILEPSY (GASTAUT TYPE)
EPILEPSY WITH MYOCLONIC ABSENCES
LENNOX-GASTAUT SYNDROME
EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH CONTINUOUS SPIKE-AND-WAVE DURING SLEEP (CSWS). (SOMETIME REFERRED TO AS ELECTRICAL STATUS EPILEPTICUS DURING SLOW SLEEP (ESES)).
LANDAU-KLEFFNER SYNDROME (LKS)
CHILDHOOD ABSENCE EPILEPSY (CAE)
ADOLESCENCE – ADULT
JUVENILE ABSENCE EPILEPSY (JAE)
JUVENILE MYOCLONIC EPILEPSY (JME)
EPILEPSY WITH GENERALIZED TONIC–CLONIC SEIZURES ALONE
PROGRESSIVE MYOCLONUS EPILEPSIES (PME)
AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT EPILEPSY WITH AUDITORY FEATURES (ADEAF)
OTHER FAMILIAL TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSIES
LESS SPECIFIC AGE RELATIONSHIP
FAMILIAL FOCAL EPILEPSY WITH VARIABLE FOCI (CHILDHOOD TO ADULT)
REFLEX EPILEPSIES
DISTINCTIVE CONSTELLATIONS  
MESIAL TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY WITH HIPPOCAMPAL SCLEROSIS (MTLE WITH HS)
RASMUSSEN SYNDROME
GELASTIC SEIZURES WITH HYPOTHALAMIC HAMARTOMA
HEMICONVULSION–HEMIPLEGIA–EPILEPSY
EPILEPSIES THAT DO NOT FIT INTO ANY OF THESE DIAGNOSTIC CATEGORIES CAN BE DISTINGUISHED FIRST ON THE BASIS OF THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF A KNOWN STRUCTURAL OR METABOLIC CONDITION (PRESUMED CAUSE) AND THEN ON THE BASIS OF THE PRIMARY MODE OF SEIZURE ONSET (GENERALIZED VS. FOCAL)
EPILEPSIES ATTRIBUTED TO AND ORGANIZED BY STRUCTURAL-METABOLIC CAUSES  
MALFORMATIONS OF CORTICAL DEVELOPMENT (HEMIMEGALENCEPHALY, ETC.)
NEUROCUTANEOUS SYNDROMES (TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS COMPLEX, ETC.)
TUMOR
INFECTION
TRAUMA
ANGIOMA
PERINATAL INSULTS
STROKE
ETC
EPILEPSIES OF UNKNOWN CAUSE  
CONDITIONS WITH EPILEPTIC SEIZURES THAT ARE TRADITIONALLY NOT DIAGNOSED AS A FORM OF EPILEPSY PER SE  
BENIGN NEONATAL SEIZURES (BNS)
FEBRILE SEIZURES (FS)

The arrangement of electroclinical syndromes does not reflect etiology

Epilepsia, 51(4):676–685, 2010

http://icnapedia.org/wiki/2744
APA Style
Classification of seizures. (n.d.). In ICNApedia. Retrieved March 18,2019 18:41:07 from http://icnapedia.org/wiki/wiki/2744
MLA Style
"Classification of seizures." ICNApedia: The Child Neurology Knowledge Environment, Inc. May 06, 2018. Web. March 18,2019 18:41:07
AMA Style
ICNApedia contributors. Classification of seizures. ICNApedia, The Child Neurology Knowledge Environment. May 06, 2018. Available at: http://icnapedia.org/wiki/wiki/2744.Accessed March 18,2019 18:41:07.

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