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Acetazolamide, an heterocyclic sulfonamide, is a carbonic anhydrase-inhibiting drug used predominantly for the treatment of glaucoma.
 
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Anti NMDAR encephalitis is an acute Encephalitis associated with antibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors and is now considered a distinct clinical entity
 
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Benzodiazepines are a group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring. The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide, was introduced in clinical practice as anxiolytic and hypnotic in 1960 under the brand name Librium. Diazepam (Valium) followed in 1963. There are today over 30 benzodiazenines (15 are marketed in the USA) used for anxiety, panic, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures.
 
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Carbamazepine is an iminodibenzyl derivative desig nated chemically as 5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine- 5-carboxamide. It is structurally related to the tricyclic antidepressants. It was first introduced into clinical practice in 1962, mainly for the treat ment of trigeminal neuralgia prior to becoming the main AED for focal epilepsies.
 
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The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is formed by the choroid plexuses within the ventricles, passes into the subarachnoid space around the spinal cord and finally over the surface of the brain, to be absorbed in the arachnoid villi in the sagittal sinus. The composition of the CSF changes during circulation from its creation to its final absorption. For example, the CSF protein is lowest in the lateral ventricles, intermediate in the lumbar subarachnoid space, and highest in the subarachnoid spaces over the surface of the cerebral hemispheres (where it is occasionally sampled in mistake for subdural fluid). Except when there...
 
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Childhood stroke is one of the top ten causes of mortality in childhood. A majority of the survivors have neurological and neuropsychological deficits with significant impact on their participation and health related quality of life. WHO stroke definition includes arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS), intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT). It is well recognised that childhood stroke is multifactorial and atherosclerosis, the commonest cause of AIS in adults, is extremely rare in childhood. A number of risk factors are described and at least one factor is found in 80% children. Relatively low numbers of stroke in any one...
 
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Employed for definitive diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C phenotype.
 
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The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission on Classification and Terminology has revised concepts, terminology, and approaches for classifying seizures and forms of epilepsy. Generalized and focal are redefined for seizures as occurring in and rapidly engaging bilaterally distributed networks (generalized) and within networks limited to one hemisphere and either discretely localized or more widely distributed (focal). Classification of generalized seizures is simplified. No natural classification for focal seizures exists; focal seizures should be described according to their manifestations (e.g., dyscognitive, focal motor). The concepts of generalized and focal do not apply to electroclinical syndromes. Genetic, structural–metabolic, and unknown...
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