Investigations in Child Neurology 40005 0
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is formed by the choroid plexuses within the ventricles, passes into the subarachnoid space around the spinal cord and finally over the surface of the brain, to be absorbed in the arachnoid villi in the sagittal sinus. The composition of the CSF changes during circulation from its creation to its final absorption. For example, the CSF protein is lowest in the lateral ventricles, intermediate in the lumbar subarachnoid space, and highest in the subarachnoid spaces over the surface of the cerebral hemispheres (where it is occasionally sampled in mistake for subdural fluid). Except when there...
The Normal EEG in ChildrenHot
Clinical Neurophysiology 102120 0
The electroencephalograms (EEGs) of infants and children are normally characterized by a greater mixture of waveforms and frequencies than is found in adults. The relative predominance of these wave types varies with age. There may be considerable intersubject variability, possibly because of differences in maturation. Several waveforms, such as the initial response to hyperventilation and posterior slow rhythms of youth, may be normally asymmetrical. Moreover, infants and young children tend to become drowsy during the recording, and the electrographic alterations with drowsiness are greater than those with adults.
Progressive Myoclonus EpilepsiesHot
Epilepsy 47653 0
The differential diagnosis of progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) with onset between late childhood and late adolescence includes neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, type I sialidosis, and myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers. However, the two most common forms of PME in this age group are Lafora disease and Unverricht–Lundborg disease (ULD).
Vitamin Responsive Conditions 13721 0
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning in infancy or, in some cases, before birth.
Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy in Infancy: Dravet SyndromeHot
Epilepsy 55310 0
Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SME) was described by Charlotte Dravet in 1978. In the Revised ILAE classification of epilepsies, the SMEI named "Dravet syndrome" because of the lack of myoclonic seizures in many patients and is considered under Electroclinical syndromes.
Classification of seizuresHot
Epilepsy 9000 0
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission on Classiﬁcation and Terminology has revised concepts, terminology, and approaches for classifying seizures and forms of epilepsy. Generalized and focal are redeﬁned for seizures as occurring in and rapidly engaging bilaterally distributed networks (generalized) and within networks limited to one hemisphere and either discretely localized or more widely distributed (focal). Classiﬁcation of generalized seizures is simpliﬁed. No natural classiﬁcation for focal seizures exists; focal seizures should be described according to their manifestations (e.g., dyscognitive, focal motor). The concepts of generalized and focal do not apply to electroclinical syndromes. Genetic, structural–metabolic, and unknown...
Anti NMDAR encephalitisHot
Encephalitis 77940 0
Anti NMDAR encephalitis is an acute Encephalitis associated with antibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors and is now considered a distinct clinical entity
Fever induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school age childrenHot
Epileptic Encephalopathies 19660 0
Fever induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school age children (FIRES) is a devastating condition which follows a prolonged refractory status epilepticus (SE) triggered by fever of unknown cause. The intractable perisylvian status epilepticus might persist for more than a month and results in severe cognitive impairment.