Vascular Disorders of the CNS 3118 0
Childhood stroke is one of the top ten causes of mortality in childhood. A majority of the survivors have neurological and neuropsychological deficits with significant impact on their participation and health related quality of life. WHO stroke definition includes arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS), intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT). It is well recognised that childhood stroke is multifactorial and atherosclerosis, the commonest cause of AIS in adults, is extremely rare in childhood. A number of risk factors are described and at least one factor is found in 80% children. Relatively low numbers of stroke in any one...
Multiple sclerosis and related conditionsHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 3865 0
The MRI can be used to meet the dissemination in space requirement if the McDonald criteria for a positive MRI are applied. The MRI must show three of the following four features: (1) nine or more white matter lesions or one gadolinium-enhancing lesion, (2) three or more periventricular lesions, (3) a juxtacortical lesion, (4) an infratentorial lesion. The combination of an abnormal CSF finding and two lesions on the MRI, of which one must be in brain, can also meet the dissemination in space criteria; the CSF must...
Investigating Stroke and related conditionsHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 3702 0
CT Brain, with contrast is around 85% sensitive for a diagnosis of CVST. If there is doubt MR Venography should be undertaken Negative CT in the context of persistent neurological impairment should prompt further investigation with MRI or, if this proves impossible, repeat CT, as pathologies such as arterial ischaemic stroke become more apparent on CT with time. In Arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) as well as brain imaging, investigation should include evaluation for thrombophilia (including anticardiolipin antibodies). The history should include enquiry...
Epileptic and non-epileptic phenomenaHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 4975 0
Nonspecific combinations of epileptic and non-epileptic phenomena Condition Epileptic component Non-epileptic component Investigations ...
Paroxysmal non-epileptic eventsHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 7967 1
Paroxysmal non-epileptic events Category Condition Clinical features Investigations ...
Investigating Febrile SeizuresHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 4045 0
Differential diagnosis of seizures with fever The following diagnostic possibilities exist, these not being mutually exclusive. 1. The convulsion is not an epileptic seizure nor an anoxic seizure but is a rigor or an hallucination or febrile myoclonus or febrile ataxia. 2. The seizure is a febrile syncope similar to a syncope suffered by adults with influenza and fever. 3. The seizure is a syncope due to ventricular tachyarrhythmia precipitated by fever Brugada syndrome (a sodium channelopathy with several...
Investigations in Child Neurology 3671 0
Some genetic, structural and metabolic epilepsy associations Condition Clinical Investigations Down...
Investigations in Child Neurology 5666 0
EEG pattern in common epileptic seizures Seizure type Semiology Ictal EEG Ictal EMG (both deltoids) Comments ...
Investigating the neonate with abnormal neurologyHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 7988 0
Investigating Neonatal SeizuresHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 5645 0