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Neurological Complications of Renal Disease

Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016
Source:Seminars in Pediatric Neurology

Author(s): H. Jorge Baluarte

Neurological manifestations related to electrolyte disorders, drug toxicity, and uremia are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seizures and coma were frequent complications of acute uremia, whereas peripheral neuropathy and encephalopathy, observed in progressive uremia, were terminal events. Failure to excrete metabolic products causes an accumulation of these products and can lead to severe intoxication. Clinically, the signs and symptoms of uremia can vary widely, depending on the biological characteristics of the patient, the specific type of renal disease, and the time of the uremic intoxication. CKD is an increasing problem worldwide and is now being recognized as a global health burden particularly for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Despite improvements in the medical management of advanced CKD, including dialysis and transplantation, patients manifest a number of symptoms neurologists are often confronted with. Appropriate drug dosing, awareness of potential side effects of medications, prompt diagnosis, and treatment are essential in preventing long-term morbidity and mortality.

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