Neuronal inhibition and seizure suppression by acetoacetate and its analog, 2-phenylbutyrate
The ketogenic diet is clinically used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy. The diet treatment markedly increases ketone bodies (acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate), which work as energy metabolites in the brain. Here, we investigated effects of acetoacetate on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) in pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. We further explored an acetoacetate analog that inhibited VDCCs in pyramidal cells, reduced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), and suppressed seizures in vivo.
The effects of acetoacetate and its analogs on VDCCs and EPSCs were evaluated using patch-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells of mouse hippocampal slices. The in vivo effects of these reagents were also evaluated using a chronic seizure model induced by intrahippocampal injection of kainate.
Acetoacetate inhibited VDCCs in pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices, and reduced EPSCs in slices exhibiting epileptiform activity. More potent EPSC inhibitors were then explored by modifying the chemical structure of acetoacetate, and 2-phenylbutyrate was identified as an acetoacetate analog that inhibited VDCCs and EPSCs more potently. Although acetoacetate is known to inhibit vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), 2-phenylbutyrate did not inhibit VGLUTs, showing that 2-phenylbutyrate is an acetoacetate analog that preferably inhibits VDCCs. In addition, 2-phenylbutyrate markedly reduced EPSCs in slices exhibiting epileptiform activity, and suppressed hippocampal seizures in vivo in a mouse model of epilepsy. The in vivo antiseizure effects of 2-phenylbutyrate were more potent than those of acetoacetate. Finally, intraperitoneal 2-phenylbutyrate was delivered to the brain, and its brain concentration reached the level enough to reduce EPSCs.
These results demonstrate that 2-phenylbutyrate is an acetoacetate analog that inhibits VDCCs and EPSCs in pyramidal cells, suppresses hippocampal seizures in vivo, and has brain penetration ability. Thus 2-phenylbutyrate provides a useful chemical structure as a lead compound to develop new antiseizure drugs originating from ketone bodies.
Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: Position Paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) presents a revised operational classification of seizure types. The purpose of such a revision is to recognize that some seizure types can have either a focal or generalized onset, to allow classification when the onset is unobserved, to include some missing seizure types, and to adopt more transparent names. Because current knowledge is insufficient to form a scientifically based classification, the 2017 Classification is operational (practical) and based on the 1981 Classification, extended in 2010. Changes include the following: (1) “partial” becomes “focal”; (2) awareness is used as a classifier of focal seizures; (3) the terms dyscognitive, simple partial, complex partial, psychic, and secondarily generalized are eliminated; (4) new focal seizure types include automatisms, behavior arrest, hyperkinetic, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional; (5) atonic, clonic, epileptic spasms, myoclonic, and tonic seizures can be of either focal or generalized onset; (6) focal to bilateral tonic–clonic seizure replaces secondarily generalized seizure; (7) new generalized seizure types are absence with eyelid myoclonia, myoclonic absence, myoclonic–atonic, myoclonic–tonic–clonic; and (8) seizures of unknown onset may have features that can still be classified. The new classification does not represent a fundamental change, but allows greater flexibility and transparency in naming seizure types.
Instruction manual for the ILAE 2017 operational classification of seizure types
This companion paper to the introduction of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification of seizure types provides guidance on how to employ the classification. Illustration of the classification is enacted by tables, a glossary of relevant terms, mapping of old to new terms, suggested abbreviations, and examples. Basic and extended versions of the classification are available, depending on the desired degree of detail. Key signs and symptoms of seizures (semiology) are used as a basis for categories of seizures that are focal or generalized from onset or with unknown onset. Any focal seizure can further be optionally characterized by whether awareness is retained or impaired. Impaired awareness during any segment of the seizure renders it a focal impaired awareness seizure. Focal seizures are further optionally characterized by motor onset signs and symptoms: atonic, automatisms, clonic, epileptic spasms, or hyperkinetic, myoclonic, or tonic activity. Nonmotor-onset seizures can manifest as autonomic, behavior arrest, cognitive, emotional, or sensory dysfunction. The earliest prominent manifestation defines the seizure type, which might then progress to other signs and symptoms. Focal seizures can become bilateral tonic–clonic. Generalized seizures engage bilateral networks from onset. Generalized motor seizure characteristics comprise atonic, clonic, epileptic spasms, myoclonic, myoclonic–atonic, myoclonic–tonic–clonic, tonic, or tonic–clonic. Nonmotor (absence) seizures are typical or atypical, or seizures that present prominent myoclonic activity or eyelid myoclonia. Seizures of unknown onset may have features that can still be classified as motor, nonmotor, tonic–clonic, epileptic spasms, or behavior arrest. This “users’ manual” for the ILAE 2017 seizure classification will assist the adoption of the new system.
ILAE classification of the epilepsies: Position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Classification of the Epilepsies has been updated to reflect our gain in understanding of the epilepsies and their underlying mechanisms following the major scientific advances that have taken place since the last ratified classification in 1989. As a critical tool for the practicing clinician, epilepsy classification must be relevant and dynamic to changes in thinking, yet robust and translatable to all areas of the globe. Its primary purpose is for diagnosis of patients, but it is also critical for epilepsy research, development of antiepileptic therapies, and communication around the world. The new classification originates from a draft document submitted for public comments in 2013, which was revised to incorporate extensive feedback from the international epilepsy community over several rounds of consultation. It presents three levels, starting with seizure type, where it assumes that the patient is having epileptic seizures as defined by the new 2017 ILAE Seizure Classification. After diagnosis of the seizure type, the next step is diagnosis of epilepsy type, including focal epilepsy, generalized epilepsy, combined generalized, and focal epilepsy, and also an unknown epilepsy group. The third level is that of epilepsy syndrome, where a specific syndromic diagnosis can be made. The new classification incorporates etiology along each stage, emphasizing the need to consider etiology at each step of diagnosis, as it often carries significant treatment implications. Etiology is broken into six subgroups, selected because of their potential therapeutic consequences. New terminology is introduced such as developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. The term benign is replaced by the terms self-limited and pharmacoresponsive, to be used where appropriate. It is hoped that this new framework will assist in improving epilepsy care and research in the 21st century.
MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy—What do we know?
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common focal epilepsy in adults. TLE has a high chance of becoming medically refractory, and as such, is frequently considered for further evaluation and surgical intervention. Up to 30% of TLE cases, however, can have normal (“nonlesional” or negative) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results, which complicates the presurgical workup and has been associated with worse surgical outcomes. Helped by contributions from advanced imaging techniques and electrical source localization, the number of surgeries performed on MRI-negative TLE has increased over the last decade. Thereby new epidemiologic, clinical, electrophysiologic, neuropathologic, and surgical data of MRI-negative TLE has emerged, showing characteristics that are distinct from those of lesional TLE. This review article summarizes what we know today about MRI-negative TLE, and discusses the comprehensive assessment of patients with MRI-negative TLE in a structured and systematic approach. It also includes a concise description of the most recent developments in structural and functional imaging, and highlights postprocessing imaging techniques that have been shown to add localization value in MRI-negative epilepsies. We evaluate surgical outcomes of MRI-negative TLE, identify prognostic makers of postoperative seizure freedom, and discuss strategies for optimizing the selection of surgical candidates in this group.