Adverse reactions of antiepileptic drugsHot
Epilepsy 2899 0
Adverse Drug Reaction Acute Side Effects Drug Concentration Dependent Idiosyncratic Chronic Side Effects Carbamazepine Diplopia Dizziness Drowsiness Nausea Unsteadiness Lethargy Blood dyscrasias Rash (HLA antigen testing may be relevant to avoid Stevens–Johnson or toxic epidermal necrolysis) ...
AED Dosing and Target Serum ConcentrationsHot
Epilepsy 2649 0
Drug Brand Name Initial or Starting Dose Usual Range or Maximum Dose Comments Target Serum Concentration Range Barbiturates Phenobarbital Various 1-3 mg/kg/d (10-20 mg/kg LD) 180-300 mg 10-40 μg/mL (43-172 μmol/L) Primidone Mysoline 100-125 mg/d 750-2000 mg 5-10 μg/mL (23-46 μmol/L)...
Pharmacopoeia 3652 0
Perampanel, a first-in-class, noncompetitive, α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist recently approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in patients 12 years of age and older when other antiepileptic medications have failed.
Inflammatory disorders 9776 0
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord.
Vascular Disorders of the CNS 3364 0
Childhood stroke is one of the top ten causes of mortality in childhood. A majority of the survivors have neurological and neuropsychological deficits with significant impact on their participation and health related quality of life. WHO stroke definition includes arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS), intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT). It is well recognised that childhood stroke is multifactorial and atherosclerosis, the commonest cause of AIS in adults, is extremely rare in childhood. A number of risk factors are described and at least one factor is found in 80% children. Relatively low numbers of stroke in any one...
Multiple sclerosis and related conditionsHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 4047 0
The MRI can be used to meet the dissemination in space requirement if the McDonald criteria for a positive MRI are applied. The MRI must show three of the following four features: (1) nine or more white matter lesions or one gadolinium-enhancing lesion, (2) three or more periventricular lesions, (3) a juxtacortical lesion, (4) an infratentorial lesion. The combination of an abnormal CSF finding and two lesions on the MRI, of which one must be in brain, can also meet the dissemination in space criteria; the CSF must...
Investigating Stroke and related conditionsHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 3891 0
CT Brain, with contrast is around 85% sensitive for a diagnosis of CVST. If there is doubt MR Venography should be undertaken Negative CT in the context of persistent neurological impairment should prompt further investigation with MRI or, if this proves impossible, repeat CT, as pathologies such as arterial ischaemic stroke become more apparent on CT with time. In Arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) as well as brain imaging, investigation should include evaluation for thrombophilia (including anticardiolipin antibodies). The history should include enquiry...
Epileptic and non-epileptic phenomenaHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 5175 0
Nonspecific combinations of epileptic and non-epileptic phenomena Condition Epileptic component Non-epileptic component Investigations ...
Paroxysmal non-epileptic eventsHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 8392 1
Paroxysmal non-epileptic events Category Condition Clinical features Investigations ...
Investigating Febrile SeizuresHot
Investigations in Child Neurology 4213 0
Differential diagnosis of seizures with fever The following diagnostic possibilities exist, these not being mutually exclusive. 1. The convulsion is not an epileptic seizure nor an anoxic seizure but is a rigor or an hallucination or febrile myoclonus or febrile ataxia. 2. The seizure is a febrile syncope similar to a syncope suffered by adults with influenza and fever. 3. The seizure is a syncope due to ventricular tachyarrhythmia precipitated by fever Brugada syndrome (a sodium channelopathy with several...